Teaching and learning


3.3.1. Getting Started: Voice Visualisation in the Teaching Studio, (PDF, 552 KB)

              Prof. Norma Enns,

Ideas on what to think about when starting to use voice visualization in (your) ... teaching.

The pace of a normal singing lesson means that you need to work efficiently, since there are many things to work at each lesson. You don’t want to loose the interest of the student, or waste his/her time and/or money. When introducing something new, the results should be quickly and clearly accessible. In the case of visualization software, this is especially applicable because of the temptation to spend time with adjustments, saving documents, and so forth.  How to do it (.....)


3.3.2 Selected Typologies of Learners and Learning related to digital resources in singing lessons, (PDF, 532 KB) 

            Sebastian Bielicke, Hamburg, Germany, Oct. 2012

             (The original German paper can be accessed by clicking here.)


    In this contribution, the common concept of “learning types” is examined from the perspective of educational science. The basic difference between typologies of learners and typologies of learning strategies is pointed out. In conclusion, selected taxonomies of learning strategies are related to the possible use of digital resources in music education, illustrated through the example of singing lessons. The first part deals with learning typologies based on sensual channels, that describe “auditory learners”, “visual learners” etc. This approach has come in for a lot of fundamental criticism in modern educational science.

   In the second part, David A. Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory with its general categorisation of learners as assimilators and accommodators, convergers and divergers is introduced. Again, the existence and relevance of learner categories is questioned by numerous authors. Nevertheless, in the third part, Kolb’s image of the experience-based cycle of learning (concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualisation, active experimentation) as well as the use of different channels of perception is validated. This is then connected with the application of digital resources to support voice teaching. Such possibilities are for example: real time visual feedback, audio-recording in lessons and home practice, online encyclopedias for theoretical, historical or biographical background information, syntheticized accompaniments (especially for commercial contemporary music) for practice purposes, searching reference recordings of music on YouTube and similar online data banks
and many more.

   My conclusions are that 1. we can include digital resources to make music teaching more rich and attractive for the young generation who are familiar with digital learning, 2. valid theories of pedagogy science support the idea of thus diversifying learning strategies; 3. it is, however, unnecessary and misleading to “label” students as certain types of learners.



              Lecture presented by Prof. Norma Enns, Hannover, Germany, March 2011

In looking for materials and questions pertinent to developing the pedagogy programme of the current EVTA project, the results in my own studio pointed to the question of learning strategies and styles. I asked myself: „Why does this work so well for one student, and not at all for another?“ Having often posed this question in connection with my observations as a voice teacher both within my own class and those of my colleagues, I decided to pursue it. I make no pretense of the fact that the material in this article is not scientifically researched; it is born out of a brief internet search, an hour-long conversation with a neurologist and reflection on my experience in teaching practise.(........)

A separate Power Point presentation  "Learning Strategies, WWWHFW? What, When, Why, How and for Whom?" on the same topic can be downloaded here.



3.3.4. Practising with Voice Visualization Software: The voice student’s perspective (PDF, 24 KB)

            Sophia Körber, BM, Voice major, Univ. of Music, Drama & Media, Hannover

The more I study and professionalize my singing, the more I realize how many possibilities and ways of learning are open to me. Sometimes I have the feeling they are constantly expanding.  All of them  have the aim of helping me to develop a consistent technique in order to be able to fulfill the requirements of a fantastic but demanding profession with vocal freedom and passion. 

My singing lessons with a professor gives me my main orientation and security in developing my voice, but as I develop and mature as a singer, my independence becomes more and more important to me, especially for my own practising. Initially, the only equipment during my practising consisted of my music, a piano, a pencil and a bottle of water. Then I added a mirror and some materials for body work, for example Flexa-Band, aerostat or a straw. Since my professor showed me the technology for singing I have a new tool: my laptop with the voice visualization programs I installed.

After the first introduction to these programs, I realized that it is fun to play with them. Just the fact of being able to SEE my voice was a wonderful experience andbrought me a great “Aha!” effect. Later I developed more interest in the details, and I began to analyze the special criteria of my voice.

The following examples are in no way a complete student’s guideline for using technology to practice alone. This article is based on my personal impressions and experiences and intended as an encouragement to others to try it out for themselves. (.......)


3.3.5 Practising with Voice Visualization Software: The teacher's perspective (PDF, 24 KB)

     Prof. Norma Enns, Univ. of Music, Drama & Media, Hannover, Germany

Teachers of voice majors at the university level, must come to a good balance between fostering the student's development on the one hand, by leading the way and giving him the technical know-how and tools for vocal development and on the other hand, allowing him to develop his self-perception and creativity by working independently outside the lesson. Of course the teaching is the foundation of development, but a young singer's ability to deal with a concert or competition situation that is less than ideal by him/herself is an essential part of success. Furthermore, I have encouraged my students to come to lessons with questions and a goal in mind: "could you work effectively on this exercise alone?" "Why do you wish to sing this piece today?" The questions a student brings to the lesson from his independent practice sessions or coaching lessons are an open invitation to effective teaching and learning. Often I begin the lesson by asking if there is a question, defining the goal in working on a certain technical aspect or repertoire, and in return, telling the student what I would like to work on. Agreeing on the content of the lesson gives both student and teacher structure and orientation. (.......)


3.3.6. Training Session: Creative Teaching and Technology (PDF, 1.8 MB)

         Susan Yarnall and Norma Enns, Helsinki, Finland, June 2012

Can visualization and sound painting help? (Practical use of voice visualisation software in the studio)

  • How does the student’s image look?
  • How should it look?
  • What does he need to do to improve the image?
  • What method would I use to convey this information?
  • What does he need to be aware of when practising alone?
  • How does this look for classical singers? Jazz? Musical? Child, Elderly person, professional singer?
  • Applicable to a child?
  • What display is good for this purpose?
  • Substitute a case study of your own student.
  • Any other question or answer you might think of….


Resonance, Articulation and Vowels
1. Student Dababy ignores “n”s and “m”s, sounds as if she has a stuffed nose. Thereby missing the resonant quality she could gain from the nasal consonants. Medical problems have been eliminated.

2. Student Liouia doesn’t get the idea of tongue movement to form different vowels so hers all sound more or less the same.

(Further questions from teachers on what to use voice visualisation software for in practical studio situation)